In this paper, the author proposes a conceptual model for the design and implementation of formative assessment to support the learning goals of the Next Generation Science Standards. The paper includes a review of the literature on formative assessment practices and describes how the literatures justify a proposed model. The paper also discusses considerations for the model’s application to the Next Generation Science Standards, provides examples of applications, and explores the implications for the design of a coherent assessment systems called for by the NGSS.
This paper pairs an in-depth exploration of current formative assessment practices and research with guidance on the application of the presented conceptual model to the NGSS. The emphasis in the Framework and NGSS on a system of assessments that includes formative assessment makes this a valuable source of information for assessment developers, policy makers, and educators. The author provides insight and clarity around the concept and goals of formative assessment, a form of assessment that has traditionally been “muddied in research, policy, and practice.”